Orientation of photosystem I on graphene through cytochrome c553 leads to improvement in photocurrent generation

M. Kiliszek, E. Harputlu, M. Szalkowski, D. Kowalska, C. G. Unlu, P. Haniewicz, M. Abram, K. Wiwatowski, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, S. Maćkowski, K. Ocakoglu and J. Kargul

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018,6, 18615-18626

We report the fabrication of an oriented bioelectrode of photosystem I (PSI) on single-layer graphene (SLG). This bioelectrode demonstrates improved photocurrent generation, which can be directly attributed to the molecular conductive interface formed by cytochrome c553 (cyt c553) promoting the uniform orientation of PSI with its donor side towards the electrode. The conductive interface between PSI-cyt c553 and SLG is facilitated by a monolayer composed of π–π-stacked pyrene functionalized with the Ni-NTA moiety, which binds the His6-tagged cyt c553. The surface uniformity of the PSI protein orientation in the electrode structure is evidenced by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, with the latter also proving the efficient electronic coupling between majority of the PSI complexes and graphene. With the uniform organization of the biological photoactive layer, photocurrents are generated at the open circuit potential, which can be further increased when a negative potential is applied. Indeed, at the highest applied negative potential (−0.3 V), over 5-fold increase in the cathodic photocurrent for the PSI complexes conjugated via cyt c553 to the SLG substrate is observed compared with that obtained for the randomly oriented structure where PSI is physisorbed on graphene. These results indicate the key role of a strictly defined orientation of photoactive proteins on electrodes for proper electron transfer and substantial improvement in photocurrent generation in the present or similar bioelectrode architectures.

Flow-Induced Surface Charge Heterogeneity in Electrokinetics due to Stern-Layer Conductance Coupled to Reaction Kinetics

B. L. Werkhoven, J. C. Everts, S. Samin and R. van Roij

Phys. Rev. Lett. 2018, 120, 264502

We theoretically study the electrokinetic problem of a pressure-induced liquid flow through a narrow long channel with charged walls, going beyond the classical Helmholtz-Schmolukowski picture by considering the surprisingly strong combined effect of (i) Stern-layer conductance and (ii) dynamic charge-regulating rather than fixed surface charges. We find that the water flow induces, apart from the well-known streaming potential, also a strongly heterogeneous surface charge and zeta potential on chemically homogeneous channel walls. Moreover, we identify a novel steady state with a nontrivial 3D electric flux with 2D surface charges acting as sources and sinks. For a pulsed pressure drop our findings also provide a first-principles explanation for ill-understood experiments on the effect of flow on interfacial chemistry [D. Lis et al.Science 344, 1138 (2014)].

Complex electric double layers in charged topological colloids

J. C. Everts and M. Ravnik

Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 14119

Charged surfaces in contact with liquids containing ions are accompanied in equilibrium by an electric double layer consisting of a layer of electric charge on the surface that is screened by a diffuse ion cloud in the bulk fluid. This screening cloud determines not only the interactions between charged colloidal particles or polyelectrolytes and their self-assembly into ordered structures, but it is also pivotal in understanding energy storage devices, such as electrochemical cells and supercapacitors. However, little is known to what spatial complexity the electric double layers can be designed. Here, we show that electric double layers of non-trivial topology and geometry -including tori, multi-tori and knots- can be realised in charged topological colloidal particles, using numerical modelling within a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We show that the complexity of double layers -including geometry and topology- can be tuned by changing the Debye screening length of the medium, or by changing the shape and topology of the (colloidal) particle. More generally, this work is an attempt to introduce concepts of topology in the field of charged colloids, which could lead to novel exciting material design paradigms.

Insight into the fission mechanism by quantitative characterization of Drp1 protein distribution in the living cell

B. M. Michalska, K. Kwapiszewska, J. Szczepanowska, T. Kalwarczyk, P. Patalas-Krawczyk, K. Szczepański, R. Hołyst, J.Duszyński and J. Szymański

Scientific Reports, 2018, 8, 8122

One of the main players in the process of mitochondrial fragmentation is dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which assembles into a helical ring-like structure on the mitochondria and facilitates fission. The fission mechanism is still poorly understood and detailed information concerning oligomeric form of Drp1, its cellular distribution and the size of the fission complex is missing. To estimate oligomeric forms of Drp1 in the cytoplasm and on the mitochondria, we performed a quantitative analysis of Drp1 diffusion and distribution in gene-edited HeLa cell lines. This paper provides an insight into the fission mechanism based on the quantitative description of Drp1 cellular distribution. We found that approximately half of the endogenous GFP-Drp1 pool remained in the cytoplasm, predominantly in a tetrameric form, at a concentration of 28 ± 9 nM. The Drp1 mitochondrial pool included many different oligomeric states with equilibrium distributions that could be described by isodesmic supramolecular polymerization with a Kd of 31 ± 10 nM. We estimated the average number of Drp1 molecules forming the functional fission complex to be approximately 100, representing not more than 14% of all Drp1 oligomers. We showed that the upregulated fission induced by niclosamide is accompanied by an increase in the number of large Drp1 oligomers.

Recent advances in bacteriophage-based methods for bacteria detection

Ł. Richter, M. Janczuk-Richter, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, J. Paczesny, R. Hołyst

Drug Discovery Today, 2018, 23, 2, 448-455

Fast and reliable bacteria detection is crucial for lowering the socioeconomic burden related to bacterial infections (e.g., in healthcare, industry or security). Bacteriophages (i.e., viruses with bacterial hosts) pose advantages such as great specificity, robustness, toughness and cheap preparation, making them popular biorecognition elements in biosensors and other assays for bacteria detection. There are several possible designs of bacteriophage-based biosensors. Here, we focus on developments based on whole virions as recognition agents. We divide the review into sections dealing with phage lysis as an analytical signal, phages as capturing elements in assays and phage-based sensing layers, putting the main focus on development reported within the past three years but without omitting the fundamentals.

Molecular Mechanisms of Photoadaptation of Photosystem I Supercomplex from an Evolutionary Cyanobacterial/Algal Intermediate

P. Haniewicz, M. Abram, L. Nosek, J. Kirkpatrick, E. El-Mohsnawy, J. D. Janna Olmos, R. Kouřil, J. M. Kargul

Plant Physiology, Volume 176, Issue 2, February 2018, Pages 1433–1451

The monomeric photosystem I-light-harvesting antenna complex I (PSI-LHCI) supercomplex from the extremophilic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents an intermediate evolutionary link between the cyanobacterial PSI reaction center and its green algal/higher plant counterpart. We show that the C. merolae PSI-LHCI supercomplex is characterized by robustness in various extreme conditions. By a combination of biochemical, spectroscopic, mass spectrometry, and electron microscopy/single particle analyses, we dissected three molecular mechanisms underlying the inherent robustness of the C. merolae PSI-LHCI supercomplex: (1) the accumulation of photoprotective zeaxanthin in the LHCI antenna and the PSI reaction center; (2) structural remodeling of the LHCI antenna and adjustment of the effective absorption cross section; and (3) dynamic readjustment of the stoichiometry of the two PSI-LHCI isomers and changes in the oligomeric state of the PSI-LHCI supercomplex, accompanied by dissociation of the PsaK core subunit. We show that the largest low light-treated C. merolae PSI-LHCI supercomplex can bind up to eight Lhcr antenna subunits, which are organized as two rows on the PsaF/PsaJ side of the core complex. Under our experimental conditions, we found no evidence of functional coupling of the phycobilisomes with the PSI-LHCI supercomplex purified from various light conditions, suggesting that the putative association of this antenna with the PSI supercomplex is absent or may be lost during the purification procedure.

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